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Firefighters’ gear exposed to toxic gases

Researchers have identified that firefighters’ risk of developing cancer is increased by high levels of harmful chemicals that remain on their protective gear.

19th February 2018

Innovation in Textiles
 |  Preston

Protective, Medical/Hygiene

In the study, researchers have identified that firefighters’ risk of developing cancer is increased by dangerously high levels of harmful chemicals that remain on their protective gear following exposure to smoke. The study, published today in Nature’s Scientific Reports, found that skin absorption, rather than inhalation, is firefighters’ leading cause of exposure to cancerous gases created during a fire, known as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).

UCLan researchers also discovered that the methods used to clean firefighters’ protective clothing and equipment are not effectively implemented. This causes the protective gear to be contaminated for its next use and means the length of time that skin is exposed to fire toxins is increased.

Exposure to toxic gases

This was the first UK study to identify the occupational exposure of firefighters to PAHs, and to establish whether particular practices may adversely affect their health, the university says. Wipe samples collected from firefighters’ skin, personal protective equipment, and work environment at two UK fire and rescue service stations were examined for the presence of cancerous PAHs.

At present, neither exposure to toxic gases nor their long-term effects on the health of firefighters are officially monitored in the UK, despite cancer deaths in firefighters growing steadily since the 1970s. Across the majority of Canada and the US, certain cancers are recognised as occupational diseases amongst firefighters, and the number of fire toxins they’re exposed to is measured on a cancer risk scale.

The research concluded that the risk of developing cancer in UK firefighters caused by skin absorption of toxic chemicals is as high as 350 times above the level that would action immediate government intervention in the US. Firefighting remains an unregulated occupation in the UK in terms of long-term health protection, whereas other occupations, such as hairdressing, are considered high risk.

Contaminated clothing

“We have found that contaminated clothing and equipment is causing firefighters to be exposed to alarmingly high amounts of dangerous chemicals, which puts them at a greater risk of cancer,” said Anna Stec, lead researcher and Professor in Fire Chemistry and Toxicity at UCLan.

“It is time for change. If this level of toxic exposure was found in the US or Canada, Government would immediately put measures in place to monitor the health of firefighters and address this. Countries across Europe are also tackling this problem, with Norway, Sweden and Finland working toward identifying their own solutions.”

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